Barnes & Noble Marketing Strategy 2024: A Case Study

In August 2019, activist hedge fund Elliot Management Corporation made headlines by acquiring Barnes & Noble for a staggering $683 million, including debt. This marked a significant turning point for the iconic bookseller, which was founded in 1886 but didn’t adopt the name until 1917.

Over the years, Barnes & Noble faced several challenges, including the bankruptcy of its competitor, Borders, in 2011. To adapt to the changing book retail landscape, Barnes & Noble introduced non-book items such as music, toys, events, and cafes to compete with online sales. Additionally, the company launched an e-reader called Nook, although it failed to generate much attention.

Recognizing the need for a fresh approach, Elliot Management appointed James Daunt, the CEO of Waterstones, to lead Barnes & Noble. Daunt’s strategy focused on leveraging the company’s reputation, enhancing the retail experience, and empowering local store managers to curate book selections based on their interests.

The mission of Barnes & Noble is to operate the best omni-channel specialty retail business in America. This commitment to excellence was validated when the Reputation Institute ranked Barnes & Noble as the “#1 most reputable retailer in America” in 2018.

While the retail landscape experienced significant changes, Barnes & Noble’s rejuvenation strategy fueled growth. The brand expanded from 520 superstores in 1999 to 726 in 2008. However, changes in consumer behavior, including the rise of e-commerce giants like Amazon, led to the closure of many bookshops. In 2018, Barnes & Noble reported a loss of $18 million and terminated 1,800 full-time employees. By 2019, the company had 627 stores, illustrating a decline in physical locations.

Despite the challenges, Barnes & Noble’s sales rebounded in 2021, exceeding pre-pandemic levels and signaling a positive trend in revenue. The brand opened 16 new stores in 2022 and planned to open 30 more in 2023. Interestingly, some of these new locations strategically targeted areas where Amazon’s brick-and-mortar bookstores had previously failed.

Under Daunt’s leadership, Barnes & Noble underwent a transformative phase, resulting in a redesign and refresh of its stores. This revamp aimed to enhance the overall customer experience, reigniting interest in physical bookstores.

Key Takeaways:

  • Barnes & Noble’s marketing strategy for 2024 focuses on leveraging reputation, enhancing the retail experience, and empowering local store managers.
  • The company’s mission is to operate the best omni-channel specialty retail business in America.
  • Barnes & Noble faced challenges such as the bankruptcy of competitor Borders and the changing book retail landscape.
  • The brand experienced growth and decline in physical locations, adapting to market changes.
  • Under James Daunt’s leadership, Barnes & Noble underwent a transformation, resulting in a redesign of its stores and enhanced customer experience.

Stay tuned for our upcoming articles diving deeper into Barnes & Noble’s marketing strategies and how they positioned themselves in the ever-evolving book retail industry.

The Decline of Barnes & Noble and the Rise of Amazon

In the early 2000s, Barnes & Noble, once a dominant force in the book industry, experienced a significant decline. This decline can be attributed to several factors, including the rise of e-commerce giant Amazon and the introduction of the Kindle e-reader.

Barnes & Noble, a traditional brick-and-mortar bookstore chain, struggled to compete with the convenience and affordability offered by Amazon. With the advent of online shopping, customers found it easier to browse and purchase books from the comfort of their own homes. Amazon’s extensive catalog and competitive prices made it a preferred choice for many book buyers.

Furthermore, the introduction of the Kindle e-reader revolutionized the way people consumed books. The convenience of digital books and the ability to access a vast library with a single device attracted readers who embraced the digital reading experience.

These industry shifts had a significant impact on Barnes & Noble’s sales and market share. While the company experienced remarkable sales growth from $1 million to $10 million within five years under Leonard Riggio’s leadership, its fortunes took a turn for the worse in the face of increasing e-commerce competition.

Additionally, Barnes & Noble faced financial challenges, reporting consecutive quarters of losses and laying off employees. The company’s declining revenue coincided with Amazon’s dominance in the online retail space.

Despite these struggles, Barnes & Noble has made efforts to adapt and regain its position in the market. The company has revamped its store design, creating thematic nooks and adopting a brighter and more modern aesthetic. It has also focused on improving the in-store experience by giving store managers increased autonomy to cater to local tastes.

While the rise of e-commerce and the dominance of Amazon posed significant challenges for traditional bookstores like Barnes & Noble, there is still a place for physical bookstores in the hearts of many readers. Indie bookstores, for example, have defied expectations, indicating a shift in consumer preferences.

As Barnes & Noble continues to navigate the evolving landscape of the book industry, striking a balance between local autonomy and standardized processes, as well as embracing digital marketing strategies and community engagement, will be critical for its future success.

The Leadership of James Daunt

Under the visionary leadership of James Daunt, CEO of Barnes & Noble, the renowned bookstore chain has undergone a remarkable transformation. Daunt’s innovative strategies and steadfast commitment to revitalizing the bookstore industry have led to significant achievements and positive outcomes for Barnes & Noble.

Recognizing the need for change in an evolving retail landscape, Daunt implemented a comprehensive store redesign initiative that aimed to create an intellectually stimulating environment for book lovers. This strategic approach focused on curating personalized book selections tailored to the unique interests and preferences of local communities.

By empowering individual store managers to take charge of their book selections, Daunt fostered a sense of ownership and autonomy among the Barnes & Noble workforce. This shift to a more trust-based management style allowed for creative decision-making and innovative solutions, ultimately elevating the customer experience and driving business growth.

The impact of Daunt’s leadership approach can be seen in the contrasting performance of Barnes & Noble stores. Approximately a quarter of the stores experienced significant improvements, while another quarter faced challenges during the transition period. The remaining stores fell somewhere in between. This highlights the dynamic nature of Daunt’s revitalization efforts and the overall transformative power of his leadership.

Daunt’s commitment to continuous improvement led him to encourage managers to learn from successful stores by engaging with managers from high-performing locations. This collaborative learning approach facilitated knowledge sharing and inspired managers to implement best practices for enhancing store performance.

Furthermore, under Daunt’s guidance, Barnes & Noble intends to open 50 new stores this year, signaling a confident expansion plan. These new stores, many of which will be smaller in size compared to traditional locations, will further strengthen Barnes & Noble’s presence and accessibility in the market.

Recognizing the importance of embracing digital advancements, Daunt aims to invest in the company’s e-commerce platform, which currently represents 9% of Barnes & Noble’s total sales. The focus on modernizing the platform reflects Daunt’s commitment to staying relevant in an increasingly digital-centric retail landscape.

With a total of 614 stores across the United States, Barnes & Noble remains a significant retailer of various products beyond books. From vinyl records, including artists like Taylor Swift, to a comprehensive magazine offering, the company continues to diversify its offerings to cater to a broad customer base.

James Daunt’s exceptional leadership skills and ability to revitalize struggling bookstores were demonstrated during his successful turnaround of Waterstones. The fruitful transformation of Waterstones under Daunt’s guidance serves as a testament to his visionary approach and industry expertise.

As competitors like Borders and Waldenbooks have ceased operations in the U.S., Barnes & Noble’s strong presence in the market reaffirms its position as a leader in the book retail industry. The company’s commitment to adaptability and continuous improvement sets it apart.

Overall, James Daunt’s dynamic leadership has ushered in a new era for Barnes & Noble, breathing fresh life into the bookstore industry. Driven by a passion for books and a commitment to fostering an intellectually stimulating environment, Daunt’s strategies continue to shape the future of Barnes & Noble and redefine the bookstore experience for customers across the United States.

The Importance of Targeting the Right Audience

Understanding the target audience is a crucial factor in any successful marketing strategy. For Barnes & Noble, this means recognizing the demographics and characteristics of their readers to tailor their approach effectively.

By creating multiple audience personas, Barnes & Noble visualizes their ideal readers and empathizes with their needs and preferences. This customer-centric approach allows them to curate book selections and provide personalized recommendations, ultimately increasing customer satisfaction.

Targeting the right audience is not only about reaching more readers but also about fostering customer loyalty. Barnes & Noble focuses on intellectually curious individuals who are passionate about books and reading. By understanding their primary customers’ interests and tailor-fitting their offerings, they can enhance book discovery and create a deeper connection with their audience.

Social media and digital marketing play a vital role in Barnes & Noble’s strategy to reach and engage their audience effectively. Engaging with bookish communities on platforms like Twitter, TikTok, and book clubs allows Barnes & Noble to connect with readers and stay updated on the latest trends and preferences.

Measuring success is equally important. Barnes & Noble utilizes analytics provided by various platforms to monitor engagement and reach. By analyzing data, they can iterate their marketing strategies to optimize performance and further expand their customer base.

As Barnes & Noble strategically targets women readers, they recognize the significant impact this demographic has on book sales. They empower store managers to curate book selections based on local community preferences, giving customers a unique bookstore experience tailored to their interests.

It’s worth noting that reviews play a vital role in book discoverability. Positive book reviews serve as social proof of a book’s quality and worthiness, enhancing visibility and credibility. Authors can leverage reviews in various marketing strategies, such as book blurbs, author websites, social media, email marketing, and promotional videos, to increase sales conversions.

To encourage reviews, authors should engage with readers through platforms like Kirkus and Likewise. Building relationships with bloggers and reviewers can also be beneficial in soliciting honest feedback. Creating an advance review team before a book’s official release generates initial buzz and credibility, increasing the chances of receiving positive reviews.

While incentivizing reviews is discouraged, running giveaways or contests can ethically encourage honest feedback. It’s essential for authors to remain patient and gracious with readers, focusing on positive feedback and using constructive criticism to improve their future work.

The Role of Social Media and Digital Marketing

As Barnes & Noble navigated the digital transformation, they recognized the power of social media marketing and digital marketing in establishing a strong online presence and driving audience engagement. Leveraging platforms such as Facebook, the company harnessed the potential of digital marketing to promote their books, connect with customers, and boost online book sales.

Social media marketing played a crucial role for Barnes & Noble, enabling them to reach a wider audience and create meaningful connections. By engaging in conversations with their target demographic, the company not only built a loyal community but also gained valuable insights into their audience’s preferences and interests.

Through carefully crafted digital marketing strategies, Barnes & Noble effectively showcased new authors and book releases, captivating their audience and driving interest in their offerings. By utilizing captivating visuals and compelling content, Barnes & Noble captivated their online audience and enticed them to explore the vast collection of books available.

The implementation of digital promotions and targeted campaigns further bolstered Barnes & Noble’s online book sales. By leveraging data analytics and consumer profiling, the company was able to deliver tailored content and recommendations, ensuring a personalized and engaging experience for their customers.

Furthermore, Barnes & Noble recognized the importance of building sustained relationships with their clients through online communities and multidimensional brand communities. These communities served as platforms for customers to interact with the brand, share their experiences, and provide feedback. By fostering these relationships, Barnes & Noble not only generated brand loyalty but also benefited from valuable word-of-mouth marketing.

Overall, Barnes & Noble’s embrace of social media marketing and digital marketing played a significant role in their digital transformation journey. Through these strategies, they enhanced their online presence, engaged with their audience, and ultimately drove online book sales.

Special Marketing Promotion for Book Sold Out

Barnes & Noble understands the significance of effective marketing promotion in driving book signing success. By collaborating with authors like Andrea Delucia, Barnes & Noble creates personalized connections and engages in conversations centered around how these books can positively impact readers’ lives. One such remarkable success story is Andrea Delucia’s book, “How Do I Deal With My Emotions.”

Andrea Delucia began her journey as a KDP author on Amazon before expanding her audience by affiliating with Barnes & Noble. However, the COVID-19 pandemic presented challenges as Barnes & Noble had to discontinue all signings, adding complexities to the process of scheduling a book signing.

But through personal effort and perseverance, Andrea Delucia made personalized connections by visiting Barnes & Noble locations in person, emphasizing the value her book brings to readers’ lives. She did not rely solely on emails or phone calls but took the time to engage in conversations with Barnes & Noble representatives.

One of the key strategies recommended by Andrea Delucia is the importance of following up with Barnes & Noble decision-makers multiple times to secure a book signing. This personal touch and persistence played a significant role in the success of her book signing event.

Barnes & Noble’s innovative marketing promotion strategies also played a crucial role in driving book sales and creating buzz. Social media promotion played a vital role, with Barnes & Noble posting about book signings, tagging authors, and creating a sense of exclusivity for these events.

With special marketing promotions, Barnes & Noble leveraged their social media presence and website to promote book signings and provide visibility to the authors. They also created promotional materials to generate excitement among readers. The collaboration between Barnes & Noble and authors like Andrea Delucia contributed to the success of the book signing events and, ultimately, the sell-out of her book.

Case Study: Andrea Delucia’s Book Signing Success

Strategies Results
Personalized connections and in-person visits to Barnes & Noble locations Success in securing a book signing
Engaging conversations with Barnes & Noble representatives, emphasizing the book’s positive impact on readers’ lives Enhanced understanding and appreciation of the book
Following up with Barnes & Noble decision-makers multiple times Securing a book signing and generating anticipation
Social media promotion and website visibility Increased buzz, book sales, and event attendance
Creation of promotional materials Further excitement and engagement among readers

Andrea Delucia’s success story exemplifies the importance of personal effort, effective marketing promotion, and the collaboration between Barnes & Noble and authors. By understanding readers’ emotional needs and leveraging social media platforms, Barnes & Noble creates a unique and powerful marketing strategy that contributes to the success of book signing events.

Barnes & Noble Distribution Facility Investment

CenterPoint Properties made a strategic distribution facility investment in Monroe, NJ, showcasing their confidence in the region’s real estate market and its location advantages. The Barnes & Noble facility, developed in 2005, spans an impressive 1.15 million SF and offers expandable 675-car parking and 115 exterior doors.

CenterPoint Properties completed the acquisition of the Barnes & Noble facility in February 2013, investing $83 million with a high rate of return on investment at 7.4%. This return is 150 basis points higher than the market average for Class A buildings, underscoring the facility’s value and profitability.

The location of the distribution facility is a significant advantage, situated just off the New Jersey Turnpike exit 8A. This prime location positions the facility only 35 miles from Manhattan, 60 miles from Philadelphia, and a mere half-hour from the ports of New York and New Jersey, providing convenient access and distribution routes to key markets.

In terms of transportation infrastructure, the facility’s close proximity to major ports and transportation hubs presents cost-effective opportunities. Drayage costs from the ports to the Monroe property amount to approximately $429 per container, which is notably economical compared to other locations, such as $483 for a facility off of exit 7A or $611 for the regional submarket in Allentown, Pennsylvania.

Looking ahead, CenterPoint Properties has ambitious plans to acquire 15 million square feet throughout the East Coast region over the next three years, with a particular focus on expanding their Mid-Atlantic portfolio. This highlights their confidence in the potential of Monroe, NJ, and the surrounding area as a thriving industrial and logistics hub.

The Barnes & Noble distribution facility in Monroe also offers significant options for expansion. With the potential to redevelop the car parking lot, the facility can accommodate up to 1,600 vehicles and an additional 100,800 SF of space. This flexibility allows for future growth and adaptation to meet evolving market demands.

With an extensive presence in the retail industry, Barnes & Noble operates 717 bookstores across the United States, including regional shopping malls, major strip centers, and freestanding locations. Additionally, the company operates 633 college bookstores, providing a wide range of educational materials to students.

Barnes & Noble aims to solidify its position and gain a significant share in the digital and online sales market, emphasizing the importance of adapting to changing consumer preferences. The company introduced the eBook in October 2009, capturing 20% of the market share in this segment and capitalizing on the growing popularity of digital reading.

Furthermore, Barnes & Noble strategically partners with colleges to operate 637 bookstores under the name B&N College, offering textbooks, course materials, apparel, gifts, and digital text downloads. This collaborative approach enables the company to address the evolving needs of students and educators in the digital age.

As the popularity of physical books declines, Barnes & Noble is actively expanding into the eBook and eReader market. This diversification strategy aims to offset the challenges posed by competitors like Amazon and boost the company’s profitability.

To leverage their existing stores and increase profits, Barnes & Noble is utilizing their physical locations for marketing eBooks and eReaders. This strategic approach helps the company adapt to the changing landscape of the book industry while maximizing their market presence.

With its substantial distribution facility investment, the Monroe, NJ location proves to be a key player in Barnes & Noble’s strategic growth plans. The partnership with CenterPoint Properties showcases the attractiveness of the region’s real estate market and the facility’s unparalleled location advantages. As the company navigates the dynamic landscape of the book industry, this investment lays the foundation for continued success and adaptability in the digital age.

Judging a Book (Distribution Facility) by More than Its Cover

Investment Potential and Adaptability

Despite the financial challenges faced by Barnes & Noble, their distribution facility in Monroe offers significant investment potential. The size and scope of the facility, combined with its adaptability, make it an attractive asset for potential investors. CenterPoint Properties recognized the adaptability and potential for expansion of the facility, leading to their decision to invest in the property.

Property Size and Scope

The Barnes & Noble distribution facility in Monroe boasts an impressive property size and scope. Its spacious layout can accommodate a wide range of operations and logistics requirements. With ample room for storage, sorting, and distribution, the facility presents a valuable opportunity for businesses looking to establish or expand their presence in the market.

Transportation Advantage

One of the key strengths of the Barnes & Noble distribution facility in Monroe is its transportation advantage. Its strategic location near major domestic markets and transportation infrastructure ensures efficient connectivity to various regions. This advantage not only facilitates the smooth flow of goods but also contributes to cost savings and timely deliveries, making the facility an attractive choice for businesses seeking efficient distribution solutions.

The ROI of Adaptability

CenterPoint Properties made a strategic investment in the Barnes & Noble distribution facility, and their decision proved to be highly successful in terms of return on investment (ROI). The adaptability of the property played a significant role in maximizing ROI and ensuring long-term value.

The Barnes & Noble facility offered property flexibility that allowed for various options and opportunities. With its size and scope, the facility had expansion potential, providing CenterPoint Properties with the ability to scale operations and accommodate future growth. This scalability contributed to the overall ROI of the investment.

Furthermore, the property’s adaptability opened up repurpose opportunities. CenterPoint Properties recognized that the facility could be divided into multiple distribution centers, enabling them to serve different markets and optimize operational efficiency. Additionally, exploring potential collaborations and public-private partnerships was an attractive option, further enhancing the adaptability and repurpose possibilities of the property.

The combination of property flexibility, expansion potential, and repurpose opportunities all contributed to CenterPoint Properties’ ability to maximize their return on investment. By leveraging the adaptability of the Barnes & Noble facility, they were able to secure long-term value and take advantage of future market demands.

Adaptability is a crucial factor for success in today’s rapidly changing business landscape. Companies that can quickly adapt and respond to market shifts have a significant competitive advantage. The Barnes & Noble facility investment exemplifies the importance of embracing adaptability and seizing opportunities to enhance ROI.

To visually depict the impact of the investment, here is a detailed breakdown of the ROI achieved:

Investment Return ROI
Barnes & Noble Distribution Facility $10 million 20%

The table above illustrates the significant ROI achieved through the strategic investment in the adaptable Barnes & Noble facility. This ROI showcases the value that can be generated by identifying and capitalizing on property flexibility, expansion potential, and repurpose opportunities.

Putting Down Roots in a Fertile Region

CenterPoint Properties’ strategic acquisitions have allowed them to expand their presence in the East Coast region and develop a robust Mid-Atlantic portfolio. One of their recent acquisitions, the Barnes & Noble facility in Monroe, has already proven to be a profitable venture, providing a healthy revenue stream in the short-term. This success has paved the way for future expansion opportunities.

Recognizing the untapped potential of the New Jersey market, particularly around exit 8A and the Meadowlands, CenterPoint Properties is keen on acquiring additional properties in the region. The proximity of these properties to transportation infrastructure and densely populated areas makes them highly desirable for investment.

CenterPoint’s focus on the East Coast region aligns perfectly with their strategy of capitalizing on the growing demand for distribution facilities in this area. The New Jersey market, in particular, offers immense potential for growth due to its strategic location and strong economy.

By putting down roots in this fertile region, CenterPoint Properties aims to establish a solid foothold in the Mid-Atlantic market. Their acquisitions in this region will not only generate substantial revenue but also create new opportunities for job creation and economic growth.

Sustainable Growth and Community Impact

CenterPoint Properties is committed to sustainable and regenerative practices in their operations. They understand the importance of supporting small farms and promoting sustainable agriculture. By acquiring properties in the East Coast region, CenterPoint aims to collaborate with local farmers and enable them to contribute to sustainable agriculture practices.

With a focus on creating a just and equitable food system, CenterPoint Properties recognizes the historical significance of farming in African American communities. They understand the intergenerational trauma and the impact it has had on farming practices. By supporting Black farmers and encouraging the use of ancestral techniques, CenterPoint aims to empower these farmers and build a more resilient and diverse agricultural sector.

Through partnerships with organizations like Soul Fire Farm and the National Black Food and Justice Alliance, CenterPoint Properties seeks to provide resources and support to Black farmers, enabling them to thrive and make a meaningful impact on community sustainability.

Reclaiming Power and Dignity

CenterPoint Properties firmly believes in the necessity of reclaiming power and dignity for Black farmers. By emphasizing the importance of cultural heritage and ancestral teachings in farming, they aim to nurture a sense of pride and connection to the land. This approach not only helps heal intergenerational trauma but also allows farmers to leverage their unique knowledge and skills for sustainable and regenerative farming practices.

Furthermore, CenterPoint Properties recognizes the role of farming as a form of resistance and liberation. They understand that farming practices can be a powerful tool for reclaiming autonomy, rebuilding communities, and challenging systemic injustices.

By engaging in land preservation activities and advocating for Black land justice movements, CenterPoint Properties aims to support the long-term sustainability and prosperity of Black farmers. They’re committed to providing the necessary tools and resources for self-determination, enabling these farmers to play a pivotal role in creating a just economy rooted in democracy.


In conclusion, Barnes & Noble’s successful turnaround can be attributed to its revamped marketing strategy under CEO James Daunt. By adapting to industry trends and focusing on future prospects, the company has positioned itself for continued growth in the highly competitive book retail market.

Daunt’s decentralized approach, empowering store managers with increased decision-making autonomy, has allowed Barnes & Noble to tailor its offerings to local preferences and enhance the customer experience. Additionally, the company’s move towards smaller store spaces and personalized book selections has resonated with consumers.

With 778 retail stores across all 50 states and approximately 17% of the bookselling market, Barnes & Noble remains a significant player in the industry. The company’s improved financial indicators and plans to open more stores in 2023 demonstrate its commitment to long-term success.

Through strategic investments like the Monroe distribution facility and effective email marketing practices, Barnes & Noble has successfully navigated the challenges posed by online competitors such as Amazon. By prioritizing book visibility, customer engagement, and targeted promotions, Barnes & Noble continues to thrive in the billion-dollar bookselling industry.


What led to the decline of Barnes & Noble?

The rise of Amazon and the introduction of the Kindle e-reader contributed to Barnes & Noble’s decline.

How did James Daunt contribute to the revitalization of Barnes & Noble?

James Daunt focused on store redesign and creating an intellectually satisfying environment, empowering local store managers to curate book selections based on the interests of their specific communities.

What is the importance of targeting the right audience in Barnes & Noble’s marketing strategy?

Targeting the right audience helps enhance customer satisfaction, improve book discovery, and increase sales conversions.

How does Barnes & Noble utilize social media and digital marketing?

Barnes & Noble leverages social media platforms like Facebook to connect with potential customers, promote new authors and book releases, and engage in conversations with their audience.

What special marketing promotions does Barnes & Noble use for sold-out books?

Barnes & Noble partners with authors for book signings and promotes these events through social media platforms and their website to generate buzz and increase book sales.

Why did CenterPoint Properties invest in the Barnes & Noble distribution facility in Monroe, NJ?

CenterPoint Properties recognized the investment potential of the facility due to its size, scope, transportation advantage, and its location near major markets and extensive transportation infrastructure.

How does the adaptability of the Barnes & Noble facility contribute to the return on investment?

The adaptability and potential for expansion of the facility provide opportunities for future growth, repurpose options such as dividing it into multiple distribution centers, and exploring public-private partnerships.

What regions does CenterPoint Properties focus on for future acquisitions?

CenterPoint Properties aims to develop a profitable Mid-Atlantic portfolio and has a particular interest in acquiring properties in the East Coast region, including New Jersey around exit 8A and the Meadowlands.

What are the key elements of Barnes & Noble’s marketing strategy for 2024?

Barnes & Noble’s marketing strategy focuses on adapting to the changing book retail landscape, targeting the right audience, embracing digital marketing, creating an intellectually satisfying environment, and investing in distribution facilities.
About the author

Nina Sheridan is a seasoned author at, a blog renowned for its insightful exploration of the increasingly interconnected worlds of business, technology, and lifestyle. With a keen eye for the dynamic interplay between these sectors, Nina brings a wealth of knowledge and experience to her writing. Her expertise lies in dissecting complex topics and presenting them in an accessible, engaging manner that resonates with a diverse audience.